Adipose tissue, long considered as passive reservoir of fat is now recognized as an important largest endocrine organ in the body. It sends chemical and hormone signals to other tissues and organs not only by endocrine but also by autocrine and paracrine mechanism. Adipose tissue, commonly called ‘fat’ is a type of loose connective tissue comprised of mainly lipid-filled cells adipocytes surrounded by matrix of collagen fibers, blood vessels, immune cells and fibroblasts. Adipose tissue is a major source of numerous bioactive compounds called adipocytokines or adipokines that are involved in the control of nutritional intake, sensitivity to insulin and inflammatory processes. Now adipose tissue and adipokines are regarded as functional part of endocrine system. Adipose tissue is not just mere site for inert lipid storage. But it is a complex, essential and highly active metabolic and endocrine organ. Present review is focused on the role of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ.